MISSION PLANNING: Step 5 SMEAC

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MISSION PLANNING: Step 1 Strategic goals
MISSION PLANNING: Step 2 Missions and the SG's
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MISSION PLANNING: Step 5 SMEAC
MISSION PLANNING: Step 6 Mission Statement
MISSION PLANNING: Step 7
MISSION PLANNING: Step 8 Finalized Situation Report.
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MISSION PLANNING: Step 9a The general make up of the team
MISSION PLANNING: Step 9b Planning for the HOME Team deployment
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Posted by: tire iron Oct 27 2006, 05:53 PM

OK – now is the best time to bring up the 5 paragraph order - or SMEAC.

SMEAC is an acronym to helps Marines remember the order. It is pronounced SMEE-ak.

S - Situation - what is the general situation we find ourselves in. Notice that the beginning of the Warning Order thread gave a basic "S". You'll be given some of the "S" by whoever gave you the mission - but you'll want to dig on your own to fully flesh it out. Part of the “S” is weather, astronomical data, terrain, what is known about the enemy, any friendlies or “neutrals” in the area, etc.

M - Mission - is what you have been assigned to do - this does not/will not change from what you will be given (this is the ONLY part of SMEAC that you don'touch).

E - Execution - this is EXACTLY how you will conduct the mission - AND ANYTHING that Murphy can throw your direction. THIS is where you remove the OOD from the OODA loop and allows the team to ACT under as many different varied situations that you can think of.

A – Admin and Logistics – uniforms, common equipment, special equipment, food, water, WIA, KIA procedures, etc.

C – Command and Control – communication methods, challenge and passwords when leaving and entering friendly lines.

Here is an "outline" for the SITUATION portion of SMEAC:

1. SITUATION

a. Enemy Situation

1) Weather. A brief forecast as it affects the patrol. High/Low Temperatures, Wind Speed/Direction, Precipitation, etc.

2) Astronomical Data. For each day of the mission - plus a few days incase the mission is extended. (Moonrise, Moonset, Moon Phase, Percent Illumination, Sunrise, Sunset, BMNT (Beginning of Morning Nautical Twilight), EENT (End of Evening Nautical Twilight), High/Low Tide, etc.)

3) Terrain. As found in the AO (Area of Operation)and its probable affects on the patrol. Use acronym "KOCOA":
a) Key terrain - Describe key terrain in your area (high/low ground, etc.)
b) Observation - Describe the observation in the region, considering heavy vegetation or wide open terrain.
c) Cover and Concealment - Describe how the terrain/vegetation impacts cover and concealment.
d) Obstacles - Describe any known/anticipated obstacles in the area (cliffs, deep or wide bodies of water, etc).
e) Avenues of Approach - Describe any roads, trails or paths in the area.

4) Hydrography. Describe any water to be found along route whether it is offshore or inland, like lakes, streams, swamps, etc. (water temperature, depth, beach contour, gradient, beach or bottom composition, wave characteristics, current tides, stream or river width, river bottom composition, etc.)

5) Enemy Disposition. Use acronym "SALUTE"
a) Size - How many troops, tanks, etc. do they have?
b) Activity - What are they doing?
c) Location - Where were they last seen?
d) Unit - Do we know what unit (battalion, regiment, etc.) they are?
e) Time - When was the information on the enemy last received?
f) Equipment - What equipment does the enemy have?

6) Expected enemy actions on contact. What is the likelihood and capacity for the enemy to ....
a) Defend
b) Reinforce
c) Attack
d) Withdraw
e) Delay

b. Friendly Situation. Use acronym "HAS":

1) Higher Unit Mission. If you are in a small reconnaissance team, this is your platoon's mission - not the battalion's or any other "higher" unit.

2) Adjacent Units. The locations and actions of any other units in your RAO. (Regional Area of Operations)

3) Supporting Unit. Any unit, outside of your team, that provides ANY other support to assist your team in the accomplishment of its mission. List the unit, support available, their location, and how to request their support.

c. Attachments and Detachments. The purpose and effective time of any attachment to your patrol or any patrol member you have to detach to someone else.


Any questions??

cheers

tire iron

Posted by: rowdy Oct 27 2006, 07:17 PM

This is all similar Army/Guard with very few differences. We say OCOKA, you say KOCOA. Our planning format is a little different also but the information is the same. You can look up Army FM's to get electronic copies of ours or Marine FM's for yours for that matter.
By the way, I was half raised by a Marine LTC who worked his way up through the ranks in three wars so I have a lot of respect for the Corps. He was also the one who talked me out of joining.

Posted by: SuperD4K Oct 27 2006, 07:42 PM

Okay so the warning order just tells the mission and the intended goal so that you can start to flesh out the next phase which is SMEAC right?

Posted by: Whiplash Oct 28 2006, 12:21 AM

This is what i'm getting out of this so far .

Higher Higher comes up with a mission. Then gives a "WARNING ORDER"(which contains the "MISSION STATEMENT"), to whomever can BEST carry it out.

They then plan for everything that Mr. Murphy can toss there way and choose what equipment and personel they will need. Then they come up with a very detailed "PATROL ORDER" using "SMEAC"

Am I getting this correct so far??

Posted by: tire iron Oct 28 2006, 01:15 AM

SD4K and WL,

YES.

cheers

tire iron

Posted by: Pilgrim Oct 29 2006, 11:23 PM

This is going to be work...

If I'm not carefull I may learn something...

Posted by: NKelly Jan 20 2007, 07:09 PM

1) Weather. A brief forecast as it affects the patrol. High/Low Temperatures, Wind Speed/Direction, Precipitation, etc.

2) Astronomical Data. For each day of the mission - plus a few days incase the mission is extended. (Moonrise, Moonset, Moon Phase, Percent Illumination, Sunrise, Sunset, BMNT (Beginning of Morning Nautical Twilight), EENT (End of Evening Nautical Twilight), High/Low Tide, etc.)

1/ Other than....should I ware rain gear or a parka, why is this inportant? I understand you want to be set up for the climate conditions.

Even the TV weathermen can't get it right, and they study this for a living. I wouldn't want to go out durring a Typhoon, but.....

Why Moon Phase? EENT? BMNT?

Percent Illumination?........ok if you're in the desert, or out to sea fine. You get under the forest canopy, or in an AO with a lot of tall buildings This is going to change.

Terrain. As found in the AO (Area of Operation)and its probable affects on the patrol. Use acronym "KOCOA":

2/ This sounds like you have to do a 'recon' before you do a recon. So I am a liitle confused on this. Would you do a 'look see' before you 'went out'?

Posted by: tire iron Jan 20 2007, 07:33 PM

Wind carries sound. You want the wind coming FROM the enemy if possible - so knowing what the wind will do may effect routes.

Precip is obvious - but snow sucks for leaving tracks - so you need to know if you are going to have fresh snow or not. Fresh snow can abort a recon mission.

Temps/Humidity affect H2O load-out - as well as food reqs too.

The moon can provide a lot of "light" at night - which can be good and bad - depending upon one's perspective.

The percent illumination will give the patrol members an idea of how "light" it will be for whatever night they wish to know it.

Sometimes patrols/operations are postponed because there was either too much - or too little - night light.

Also - NV devices work off of "ambient" night light - and the older generation passive NV units didn't work worth a dang when there was no moon. The newer 3rd gen stuff works fine at night - even with no moon - as the stars provide enough for them to work - but even the 3rd gen stuff works better with *some* moonlight.

The moon is considered a recon man's "sun". We need at least some of it to do our job. When there is no moon - and if it is overcast - and if there isn't alot of artificial light (street lights, lit up windows, etc.) - which there wouldn't be under a post SHTF scenario - then it is like trying to navigate in a cave with no light. Can't really be done. It is too dangerous to the team to attempt it - as at the MINIMUM there will be injuries due to tripping - and probably enough noise to alert the enemy to your presence.

KOCOA is done via maps and whatever else you have at your disposal (Google Earth, etc.) It can also be done via aircraft if you have it at your disposal.

This help??

cheers

tire iron

Posted by: NKelly Jan 21 2007, 12:46 PM

This help??

Indeed it does. I never gave NV much thought. IR would be a good choice - if you have it.

Sorry about you having to 'cut and past'. I have been doing this one step at a time, so I did not read through all the steps, then go back. I figured I'd do it one at a time, not get to far ahead of myself.....you know.

One thing is becoming clear, their 'leadership' don't seem to be very bright, if they head quarter in a spot that gives 'the enemy' an easy - clear - view of them.

I will keep slogging away at it. Thanks!!

Posted by: tire iron Jan 21 2007, 05:36 PM

Absolutely ZERO problems with the cut and paste - and I mean ZERO. Keep asking questions. If I have already given it "later on" in the series - I will just cut and paste as I did.

QUOTE
One thing is becoming clear, their 'leadership' don't seem to be very bright, if they head quarter in a spot that gives 'the enemy' an easy - clear - view of them.

Who do you mean - us or the Animals??

cheers

tire iron

Posted by: NKelly Jan 21 2007, 06:20 PM

QUOTE (tire iron @ Jan 21 2007, 04:36 PM) *
Who do you mean - us or the Animals??

cheers

tire iron

The 'Animals'. I mean, this park they have taken over. There isn't much cover, if any. Any thing, of size, will be hard to hide. Anything they build, will stand out from the surrounding area. Activities will be easy to watch. Plus, large amounts of foot traffic will form 'trails'. Making it easier to see what the most common routs are, to and from. Not to mention any vehicle traffic will leave trails too. Then there is the matter of parking them.

They are leaving their people exposed to the elements - in November? I'll bet they have a high turn over rate.

I would have used the residential area next to the park, a place I want to snoop around. It has ideal cover for vehicles and storage. Shelter for the 'troops'. A much harder place to figure out what is going on.

Just an observation, that's all.
smile.gif

Posted by: tire iron Jan 21 2007, 07:13 PM

I am making it easy on the students.

When we carry out our "virtual patrol" - I didn't want them to have to worry about the complexity of doing extremely complicated urban reconnaissance. It is easier to have them recon a field/park.

The purpose is to teach the planning process - so I don't want to/won't get bogged down with a million questions about static building reconnaissance.

cheers

tire iron

Posted by: NKelly Jan 21 2007, 07:42 PM

I understand now. I was looking at just that, urban recon. I will do some re-thinking. Thanks!

Posted by: 93Bat Feb 4 2007, 04:20 PM

Something I don't see any "SOP" on.

These are the Troop Leading Procedures.

Step 1. Receive the Mission
Step 2. Issue a warning order
Step 3. Make a tentative plan
Step 4. Start necessary movement
Step 5. Reconnoiter
Step 6. Complete the plan
Step 7. Issue the complete order
Step 8. Supervise

1. Receive the Mission

The leader may receive the mission in a warning order, an operation order (OPORD), or a fragmentary order (FRAGO). He immediately begins to analyze it using the factors of METT-T:

What is the MISSION?
What is known about the ENEMY?
How will TERRAIN and weather affect the operation?
What TROOPS are available?
How much TIME is available?

(1) The leader should use no more than one third of the available time for his own planning and for issuing his operation order. The remaining two thirds is for subordinates to plan and prepare for the operation. Leaders should also consider other factors such as available daylight and travel time to and from orders and rehearsals. In the offense, the leader has one third of the time from his receipt of the mission to the unit's LD time. In the defense, he has one third of the time from mission receipt to the time the squad or platoon must be prepared to defend.

(2) In scheduling preparation activities, the leader should work backwards from the LD or defend time. This is reverse planning. He must allow enough time for the completion of each task.

2. Issue a warning order

The leader provides initial instructions in a warning order. The warning order contains enough information to begin preparation as soon as possible. Platoon SOPs should prescribe who will attend all warning orders and the actions they must take upon receipt: for example, drawing ammunition, rations and water, and checking communications equipment.

The warning order has no specific format. One technique is to use the five-paragraph OPORD format. The leader issues the warning order with all the information he has available at the time. He provides updates as often as necessary. The leader never waits for information to fill a format.

If available, the following information may be included in a warning order.

The mission or nature of the operation.
Who is participating in the operation.
Time of the operation.
Time and place for issuance of the operation order.

3. Make a tentative plan

The leader develops an estimate of the situation to use as the basis for his tentative plan. The estimate is the military decision making process. It consists of five steps:

1. Detailed mission analysis
2. Situation analysis and course of action development
3. Analysis of each course of action
4. Comparison of each course of action
5. Decision.

The decision represents the tentative plan. The leader updates the estimate continuously and refines his plan accordingly. He uses this plan as the start point for coordination, reconnaissance, task organization (if required), and movement instructions. He works through this problem solving sequence in as much detail as time available allows. As the basis of his estimate, the leader considers the factors of METT-T.

4. Start the necessary movement

The platoon may need to begin movement while the leader is still planning or forward reconnoitering. The platoon sergeant or a squad leader may bring the platoon forward, usually under the control of the company executive officer or first sergeant.

This is where your subordinate leaders prepare men, weapons and equipment for the coming mission. It is an excellent time for them to eat, conduct maintenance on weapons/equipment, and gather together anything they are going to need for the upcoming mission.

This step could occur at any time during the troop-leading procedure.

5. Reconnoiter

If time allows, the leader makes a personal reconnaissance to verify his terrain analysis, adjust his plan, confirm the usability of routes, and time any critical movements. When time does not allow, the leader must make a map reconnaissance. The leader must consider the risk inherent in conducting reconnaissance forward of friendly lines. Sometimes the leader must rely on others (for example, scouts) to conduct the reconnaissance if the risk of contact with the enemy is high.

6. Complete the plan

The leader completes his plan based on the reconnaissance and any changes in the situation. He should review his mission, as he received it from his commander, to ensure that his plan meets the requirements of the mission and stays within the framework of the commander's intent.

7. Issue the complete order

Platoon and squad leaders normally issue oral operations orders.

(1) To aid subordinates in understanding the concept for the mission, leaders should issue the order within sight of the objective or on the defensive terrain. When this is not possible, they should use a terrain model or sketch.

(2) Leaders must ensure that subordinates understand the mission, the commander's intent, the concept of the operation, and their assigned tasks. Leaders may require subordinates to repeat all of part of the order or demonstrate on the model or sketch, their understanding of the operation. They should also quiz their soldiers to ensure that all soldiers understand the mission. Chapter 5 Infantry Platoon Tactical Standing Operating Procedure provides a list of questions that leaders can ask to determine if the soldiers understand the mission.

8. Supervise

The leader supervises the unit's preparation for combat by conducting rehearsals and inspections.

(1) Rehearsals. The leader uses rehearsals to--

Practice essential tasks (improve performance).
Reveal weaknesses or problems in the plan.
Coordinate the actions of subordinate elements.
Improve soldier understanding of the concept of the operation (foster confidence in soldiers).

(a) Rehearsals include the practice of having squad leaders brief their planned actions in execution sequence to the platoon leader.

(b) The leader should conduct rehearsals on terrain that resembles the actual ground, and in similar light conditions.

The platoon may begin rehearsals of battle drills and other SOP items before the receipt of the operation order. Once the order has been issued, it can rehearse mission specific tasks.

(d) Some important tasks to rehearse include--

Actions on the objective.
Assaulting a trench, bunker, or building.
Actions at the assault position.
Breaching obstacles (mine and wire).
Using special weapons or demolitions.
Actions on unexpected enemy contact.

(2) Inspections. Squad leaders should conduct initial inspections shortly after receipt of the warning order. The platoon sergeant spot checks throughout the unit's preparation for combat. The platoon leader and platoon sergeant make a final inspection. They should inspect--

Weapons and ammunition.
Uniforms and equipment.
Mission-essential equipment.
Soldier's understanding of the mission and their specific responsibilities.
Communications.
Rations and water.
Camouflage.
Deficiencies noted during earlier inspections.

The 5 Paragraph Operation Order.

1. Situation
What is happening as a short paraphrase.
N/A
_(1) Weather
_(2) Terrain
_(3) Identification
_(4) Location
_(5) Activity
_(6) Strength
_(7) Probable course of action
b. Friendly Forces
_(1) Mission of next higher unit
_(2) Location and planned action of units on left, right, front and rear
_(3) Mission and routes of adjacent patrols
_(4) Units providing fire support
2. Mission: Who, What, When, Where, Why?
3. Execution
a. Concept of Operation
_(1) Scheme of maneuver
_(2) Fire Support (Type and Priority)
b. Mission of Subordinate Elements. (Who, What, When, Where, Why)
_(1) Squads/Teams
_(2) Special Teams and key individuals
c. Coordinating Instructions
_(1) Action at the objective (Include sketch)
_(2) Time of departure and return
_(3) Movement techniques
_(4) Route
_(5 Alternate Route
_(6) Departure/re-entry of friendly positions
(a) Departure
(b) Re-entry
_(7) Rally points and actions at RP's
_(8) Actions on enemy contact
_(9) Actions at danger areas
_(10) Actions at halts
_(11) Fire support
_(12) Rehearsals
_(13) Inspection
_(14) Debriefing
4. Service Support
a. Rations
b. Arms and ammo
c. Uniform and equipment each will carry
d. Method of handling dead and wounded
e. Prisoners and captured equipment
5. Command and Signal
a. Signal
_(1) Frequencies and call signs
(a) Within the patrol
(b) With HQ and other units
_(2) Pyrotechnics and hand signals
_(3) Challenge and password
(a) Regular
(b) Forward
Running
(d) Codewords and reports
(b) Command
_(1) Chain of Command
_(2) Location of Squad leader during movement and at objective

Posted by: tire iron Feb 4 2007, 07:04 PM

93b,

Thanks for the post. You will make a great addition to the class.

If you would - please start at thread #1 in this series and work your way this direction.

THANKS and welcome aboard!

cheers

tire iron

Posted by: 93Bat Feb 4 2007, 07:41 PM

QUOTE (tire iron @ Feb 4 2007, 05:04 PM) *
93b,

Thanks for the post. You will make a great addition to the class.

If you would - please start at thread #1 in this series and work your way this direction.

THANKS and welcome aboard!

cheers

tire iron

I did.....

That is why I moved this from 10B to here.....
Other things are taking my time that are preventing me from partaking in this exercise at the moment.

Posted by: Romanknight May 7 2007, 01:35 PM

S has HTF. How do you forecast the weather? Do you have a weather man on your staff, with Doppler radar and satellite imagery?
Same with astronomical data. Where do you get that from? Same with hydrography.
From this scenario, looks like "enemy disposition" and "expected action on contact" are, at best, guesstimates.
Besides, you don't sneak up on the "enemy" in the middle of the night!...

Posted by: tire iron May 7 2007, 06:10 PM

This exercise illustrates that ALWAYS use all the resources at your disposal.

What will be available *then* - who knows?

I just want to get everyone used to the idea to use whatever information they have available to them.

cheers

tire iron

Posted by: Zeroedin Oct 2 2007, 08:32 PM

TI (I may be to late to ask this, but, how do 93Bat's points apply here...or DO THEY?

They SEEM pretty darned good...but, it seems that we've gone beyond much of that already...right? I mean....it SEEMS TO ME...tho I'm NO authority of experience...that it's a little too detailed...and going BACK OVER some stuff?

Am I wrong, or is this a POST that I SHOULD apply along with the begining ACTION PLANING explain?

Posted by: tire iron Oct 2 2007, 11:57 PM

I don't quite catch your drift....

Could you please be more specific with your question/s?

And - its never too late to join the class.

cheers

tire iron

Posted by: Zeroedin Oct 3 2007, 03:09 AM

Yeah, no problem... O.K....let's see....

93BAT'S post is a FORM OF MISSION PLANING dialouge...it's his understanding of "TRAINING PROGRAM" ...& ...what I'm asking is:

WHILE his post is quite CASE SECIFIC, & SEEMS a MORE DETAILED explain of the "SMEAC report", than might seem to exist, none the less, it seems to me that it is a bit of a UNDERMINING of your class construction...DOES that make more sense? In other words...is what he's posted an expansion of what we're doing here?

Is his post something that I should use (cut/paste)? Or...is it a distraction? (not necessarily WRONG, but, overly DETAILED...causing me to expend time on trying to fulfill his HIGHLY DETAILED LIST, when in reality, I SHOULD BE dealing with the PARTICULAR MISSION SPECIFICS.)

Am I being distracted? Or, OVERLY DETAILED? Hmmmm???

It strikes me that his "POST" is quite "RIGHT ON":, but NOT case specific ...not in sync with this class....not quite in order to what you're trying to develope, am I wrong?

Posted by: tire iron Oct 3 2007, 10:44 AM

You are 100% right on.

93bat gave the whole class in one post. He gave us the whole elephant. Our objective is to eat the elephant - which is impossible to do in one sitting. It takes weeks to eat an elephant.

So - in the class we are taking it a "steak at a time" - and in time - we will have eaten the whole elephant without killing ourselves in the process.

We need to "dine" on each morsel - and learn as much as we can from each morsel - we need to carve each morsel of meat off of the whole - and then season it and cook it to perfection - instead of wacking off huge hunks of meat - tossing it on the open flame - gorging ourselves and being sick and uncomfortable - and still have lots cooked meat left over that we can't eat that will just go to rot.

Does that analogy help?

cheers

tire iron

Posted by: Cornsweat Dec 20 2007, 12:05 PM

Yes, I need this one bite at a time.

I can understand what you are talking about with moonlight. Around here, with a full moon I can walk around outside without a flashlight.. it is that bright. Even without the moon, I can get around by starlight, but it is a bit harder. When we lived in CT, even with moonlight, you would be lucky to see the hand in front of your face.. Of course with snow cover, moonlight is even brighter.

-Corn

Posted by: CelticWarrior Feb 24 2008, 06:25 PM

QUOTE (Romanknight @ May 7 2007, 09:35 AM) *
S has HTF. How do you forecast the weather? Do you have a weather man on your staff, with Doppler radar and satellite imagery?
Same with astronomical data. Where do you get that from? Same with hydrography.
From this scenario, looks like "enemy disposition" and "expected action on contact" are, at best, guesstimates.
Besides, you don't sneak up on the "enemy" in the middle of the night!...

Farmers almanacs are where a lot of weathermen start for their forecasting. It isn't a bad idea for someone to have a collection of recent almanacs to review. With the information in them you can predict within a minute or two the sun info, moon info and tidal info. Weather can then be predicted by observing the wind, clouds, plants and comparing them to the same time frame in previous years. People who live in a particular AO for a very long time tend to be a good source for weather prediction. You can also use thermometers and barometers to see what the air is doing. If air pressure is higher and warmer you can predict little to no clouds and clear weather.

After having been raised in the desert, I could tell when rain was coming (as much as 24 hours away) by the air temp and pressure, the smell in the air, winds and a prickling feeling in my skin as the humidity came up.

CW

FOR LIKE MINDED PATRIOTS WHO WANT TO SURVIVE ANY AND ALL SITUATIONS THAT THEY MAY FACE.